Semolina or sooji is a very gritty, coarse type of flour, usually made from durum wheat. It comprises the nutritious heart (endosperm) of the grain, which is left behind when the fine flour is sifted after milling.
Internationally, durum semolina is commonly used in the manufacture of pasta because of its high gluten content, which gives the pasta its pleasant taste and ensures that it retains its shape during the cooking process.
In India, many more varieties of semolina are available, made from soft wheat, maize, rice, and other grains; this will be mentioned in the packaging. Here, semolina is used to make upma, idli, halwa, kheer and other dishes.